Friday, December 30, 2011

OmniThreadLibrary 3.0

As promised, I’m releasing OmniThreadLibrary with 64-bit support today!

Get it now: ZIP, SVN, UML diagrams (provided by Rich Shealer).

If you’ll be using it in production, wait until Tuesday as I won’t be fixing any bugs over the weekend and on the Monday there is a public holiday here in Slovenia.

Wednesday, December 28, 2011

OmniThreadLibrary 3.0 beta

OmniThreadLibrary 3.0 beta is available for download. Please test and report any problems.

Version 3.0 will be officially released on Friday.

How to Find a Missing _Release

For quite some time, thread pool in OmniThreadLibrary had a weird problem – if you scheduled more than 80 tasks in one go, FastMM would report memory leaks when application was terminated. It bothered me, of course, but I could never find the real reason behind the problem. And so I left the code “as is” and said to myself that nobody would encounter it in practice, anyway.

And then Žarko came and wrote about me on his blog :( In case you are living in a dark cave and didn’t hear of him – Žarko runs immensely popular Delphi site at His testing (and most of all his highly reproducible test case) gave me a new energy to pursue the problem.

The reason for the memory leak was a reference count leak in TOmniInterfaceDictionary, which is now fixed in the SVN. I also found some very tricky race conditions in TOmniTask.Execute and TOmniTask.Terminate and a cause for weird "A call to an OS function failed" error in DispatchEvent. All in all, I had two very productive bug-hunting nights. But that’s not why I started writing this article. I wanted to tell you a debugging story titled “How to find a missing Release.”

Wednesday, December 21, 2011

… 62, 63, 64!

It is my pleasure to announce the availability of OmniThreadLibrary 3.0 beta. The main focus of this release is on the 64-bit support. Every part of OmniThreadLibrary is now compatible with the Windows 64-bit platform!

The current status of the code is “It works on my machine”. That is not pretty encouraging and I would really like to see some external testing. If you are using OTL, please get the fresh copy from the SVN and check if your applications are still working. 64-bit bugs are not a big problem right now – they will be squashed before any 64-bit OTL code goes into production – but I’d really like not to break existing code. Thanks!


Tuesday, December 20, 2011

… 54, 55, 56 …

Thread pool is working, other tests are passing nicely and it looks like you’ll be able to get your hands on the alpha version tomorrow.


Monday, December 19, 2011

… 47, 48, 49 …

Second milestone reached – dynamic lock-free queue works in 64 bits as does blocking collection. The latter is basis for most high-level threading abstractions in the OmniThreadLibrary so this is quite an important milestone.


Thread pool was not tested yet so the code is still in “look but don’t touch state”.

Sunday, December 18, 2011

… 39, 40, 41 …

First milestone reached!

“Bounded” containers (fixed-size stack and queue) are now working fine both in 32- and 64- bits!


This is quite an important step because those containers are used to transfer data between OTL controllers and threads (i.e. they are used inside the Comm mechanism). They also contained quite some assembly code.


Great thanks to GJ who did all hard work to make x64 OTL possible!

Friday, December 16, 2011

32, 33, 34 …

Initial work has been committed on the x64 development branch:

Current status is “Look but don’t use”. Many parts are still broken.

Thursday, December 15, 2011

Creating an Object from an Unconstrained Generic Class

As you know if you follow my blog, OmniThreadLibrary now offers a simple way to do optimistic and pessimistic atomic initialization which works for interfaces, objects and (in the case of the pessimistic initialization), anything else. [In case you missed those articles - I also discussed a comparison of both methods and wrote a short post about the third approach to initialization.]

A typical usage of both types of initialization would be:

  sl: TStringList;
  ol: Locked<TObjectList>;

  function: TStringList
    Result := TStringList.Create;

  function: TObjectList
    Result := TObjectList.Create;

As you can see, this is pretty long-winded. If you are initializing an interface, then you’ll usually have written a factory method already and the code would be much simpler (example below this paragraph) but in the case of objects this is not very typical.

Atomic<IGpIntegerList>.Initialize(list, TGpIntegerList.CreateInterface);

So I thought – both Atomic and Locked already know what entity type they wrap around so calling a constructor from inside Initialize would be trivial, eh? I could then write a simplified version


and use the longer version only when needed, for example to initialize interfaces or to call a non-default object constructor. What could possibly go wrong?

Sunday, December 04, 2011

Busy-Wait Initialization

In response to my recent article on various kinds of initialization, GJ proposed another algorithm, which I will call here busy-wait initialization. This is the first time I’ve encountered this approach and I have no idea whether it is wide-known and has an “official” name.
The algorithm itself is very simple:
class function BusyWait<T>.Initialize(var storage: T; factory: TFactory): T;
  if storage = nil then begin
    if InterlockedCompareExchangePointer(
         PPointer(@storage)^, PPointer(@factory)^, nil) = nil 
      storage := factory()
  while PPointer(@storage)^ = PPointer(@factory)^ do
[This is not exactly the algorithm GJ proposed but my modified version, changed to work in a generic class.]

Friday, December 02, 2011

On Optimistic and Pessimistic Initialization

When you want to initialize a shared resource in a multithreaded application, you have two possibilities to choose from – optimistic and pessimistic. The difference between them is visible from the pseudocode.

Shared: T;

procedure OptimisticInitializer;
temp: T;
if not assigned(Shared) then begin
temp := T.Create;
if not AtomicallyTestAndStore(Shared, nil, temp) then

procedure PessimisticInitializer;
if not assigned(Shared) then begin
if not assigned(Shared) then
Shared := T.Create;
finally Unlock; end;

Thursday, December 01, 2011

Fibonacci Numbers the Weird Way

Yanniel recently posted two ways to generate Fibonacci numbers, here are two more.

Generating Fibonacci numbers with an enumerator

for i in Fibonacci(10) do
Of course you need a Fibonacci-implementing enumerator. I wrote one on 2007 and it uses the iterative approach. Read more in my old article Fun with enumerators, part 6 – generators.

Generating Fibonacci numbers with anonymous methods

This one was prepared for ITDevCon 2011 as an example of tricky (but pretty much useless) example of what can be done using anonymous methods.

Tuesday, November 29, 2011

Per-object locking

I was always holding the opinion that locks should be as granular as possible. Putting many small locks around many unrelated pieces of code is better then using one giant lock for everything.

To make this simpler, OmniThreadLibrary includes a very useful record called TOmniCS which allows you to do locking without doing any upfront initialization. Just declare it and you’re ready to go. [You can read more about it in my previous blog post.]

Monday, November 28, 2011

Atomic interface initialization

OmniThreadLibrary includes (in the OtlSync unit) a neat record called TOmniCS which wraps IOmniCriticalSection interface (which in itself is just a wrapper around the TCriticalSection) and allows you to use it without an explicit initialization. You just declare a variable of the TOmniCS type in your code and then call Acquire and Release methods of this variable and everything is handled for you.

  TOmniCS = record
  strict private
    ocsSync: IOmniCriticalSection;
    function  GetSyncObj: TSynchroObject;
    procedure Initialize;
    procedure Acquire; inline;
    procedure Release; inline;
    property SyncObj: TSynchroObject read GetSyncObj;
As records don’t provide automatic initialization via parameterless constructor, the code is slightly tricky. The record contains a field (ocsSync) that contains the interface reference used to do real work. This interface is initialized in the Initialize method, which is in turn called from the Acquire and Release.

procedure TOmniCS.Acquire;

Tuesday, November 15, 2011

OmniThreadLibrary needs more unit tests

Eh. How true. :( Care to step in?

It’s really simple. Take a sample application (for example 37_ParallelJoin), check what it’s doing and convert it into a unit test. [In this example, first button should cause a wait of about 3 sec and second button should cause a wait of about 5 sec. That’s all.] If the application you have chosen seems too complicated to be converted to a unit test, just ignore it and select another.

Why? Because I’ll be converting OmniThreadLibrary to support 64-bit and FireMonkey in the next week and I really could use a safety net which would ensure at least that I don’t break everything at once.

Why you? Because I’ll be converting OmniThreadLibrary to … but I already said that. If you can spend some time on that, then I don’t have to and everything will be finished quicker.

For really curious people – why 37_ParallelJoin? Because it is broken in the current SVN version. Parallel.Join.NumProc is not working correctly and I only noticed it by chance. [Fixing the bug right now …]

If you like OmniThreadLibrary but don’t feel competent enough to help developing it, this is your chance to step in and help the development effort!

Wednesday, November 09, 2011

TOmniValue handles arrays, hashes and records


For quite some time, TOmniValue record has the ability to store arrays. You would use

TOmniValue.Create([1, 2, OTL, TButton.Create(nil)]) 
and some magic would store this array inside TOmniValue.
The problem, though, was that this magic was quite lame. The array was converted to a ‘variant array’ and you could only access its elements as Variant type. This, besides other things, meant that it was not simple to store pointers, interfaces and objects in TOmniValue array. Or, better said, it was simple to store them but not simple to retrieve them. You needed some ugly casting like

o := TButton(NativeUInt(ov[1]));
Since today, TOmniValue supports native arrays, that is, each item in the array is again of the TOmniValue type.

Thursday, November 03, 2011

OmniThreadLibrary in Practice [2]–Background Worker and List Partitioning

Today’s question was asked by Žarko Gajić, the excellent maintainer of’s Delphi section.
Here's my (simplified) task I would like to solve using OTL (Delphi XE) - my real-world task is somehow more complicated but can be described as:
input: a string. output: a TStringList containing characters (one per entry) of the input string.
Example: input: "delphi"
A background thread ("master") grabs the input string and splits it into several pieces (let's say 2): "del" and "phi". For each of the split strings a new thread ("child") is created that fills in the TStringList (output) with characters from the section of the string it receives.
At any time the "master" thread could be signaled to terminate (from the app's main thread) all child threads (and itself).
When everything is done the app's main thread processes the string list.
Preferably, the order of the characters should (when all ends) be 'd', 'e', 'l', 'p', 'h', 'i' (note that characters are actually items in the resulting string list).

Saturday, October 29, 2011

ITDevCon 2011–recap

ITDevCon 2011 has closed its doors and I’m back at home, completely washed out. It was tiresome but it was also fun!

All the sessions I’ve visited were interesting and I always managed to learn something new. If I would have to expose three most important products I didn’t knew before, I would mention (in the order I learned about them) CopyCat, a great database replication engine which you can compile into your application; Delphi Relax, an extension to Delphi’s WebBroker and DataSnap REST architecture; and DORM, a new ORM for Delphi.

Thursday, October 27, 2011

ITDevCon 2011

Just few photos from the opening session …


Wednesday, October 26, 2011

Nasty COM regression in XE2

David Heffernan found a nasty RTL bug in XE2 COM implementation.

Is COM broken in XE2, and how might I work around it?

I’ve found a workaround (see the link above), but it is ugly and this should really be fixed in the next XE2 update so please – vote on the QC #100414!

Update: XE2 Update 2 fixes the bug described above. Great response time from Embarcadero!

Saturday, October 22, 2011

Multithreading Made Simple–additional material

Thank you for listening to my CodeRage 6 presentation! I’m very sorry that there were some issues with the sound that were caused by network problems :( If you want to look at the presentation again (or for the first time), please go to the Embarcadero CodeCentral or download the presentation from my Dropbox.

To help you understanding the complicated world of multithreading I’ve repacked the complete presentation in a longish PDF with slides and a transcript of my talk. (Actually, it was done vice versa – first I wrote that script and only then I prepared the presentation based on the script.) You can also download the code that was used for the presentation.

If you have any questions or if you asked me something after the presentation and I didn’t understand your question and answered something completely unrelated or even if my answer was too short and you want to learn more - feel free to leave a comment here or open a new topic in the forum.

Friday, October 21, 2011

Multithreading Made Simple

Keep in mind – my session on high-level OmniThreadLibrary stuff goes on air at 06:00 AM PDT / 15:00 CET.

Thursday, October 20, 2011

OmniThreadLibrary in Practice [1]–Web Download and Database Storage

From time to time I get a question on the OmniThreadLibrary forum that could be of interest to other OmniThreadLibrary users. As I believe that many of you don’t follow that forum I have decided to repost such questions on the blog (and provide answers, of course).

The first question in this series was asked by GoustiFruit:

I need to download a list of web pages, extract data on them and then store these data in a SQLite database. The downloading/extracting part will happen in multiple threads (I'm using Synapse), but querying the database needs to be done asynchronously as I can only have one concurrent access to it.
So I'd like to know how (conceptually) I could implement that ? My first idea is to run one single thread for querying the DB, run several threads for each Url to download/analyse and then exchange messages between these threads and the querying thread, with the extracted data as a parameter: does it make sense or am I totally wrong? I also read things about the connection pool concept but I'm not sure if it applies when only one connection is allowed at one time?

Sunday, October 16, 2011

CodeRage 6 is Starting!

Tomorrow starts the CodeRage week!

My presentation is scheduled for Friday, 21st, at 06:00 PDT / 15:00 CET, which is early for the West coast folks but great for East cost and us Europeans. See you there!

Tuesday, October 11, 2011

OmniThreadLibrary 2.2

Only three months since 2.1 and a new release is already here? What’s going on?

I had to change some things to make OTL work in XE2 and although I could simply release new files as a patch I noticed that I’ve also done quite some work on exception handling and that I could equally well wrap everything in a new release.

Here it is: ZIP, SVN, UML diagrams (provided by Rich Shealer; Rich, thanks!).

Friday, October 07, 2011

Hear Me at CodeRage

CodeRage 6 will start in ten days! Will you be there? I’ll be joining it for the sixth time as a listener and for the first time as presenter!
The exact date and time of the presentation was not determined yet (if you look at the session list you’ll see some empty spots – I’m one of them). I’ll let you know when the timeslot is fixed. In the meantime, go and register for the conference!
The topic of my talk you can probably guess – multithreading with the OmniThreadLibrary. Due to a limited session time and to attract as wide an audience as possible, I’ve decided to focus on high-level OTL functionality. The title of the talk is Multithreading made simple and it will deal with Async, Future, ForEach, Pipeline, ForkJoin, Join, and ParallelTask.

Wednesday, September 28, 2011


FastMM is a wonderful memory manager, but it can slow down quite a lot when used in multithreading environment. While Pierre has implemented some conditional defines that could help the multithreaded code, namely NeverSleepOnThreadContention and SwitchToThread, I’m now making a point that you shouldn’t ever use them! Just see for yourself.

Friday, September 16, 2011

Meet Me in Verona

SpeakerButtonI know that XE2 on Win64, OS/X and iOS is all the rage but some of us (or is it most of us?) still have to make living in the Win32 world. That’s why my ITDevCon 2011 talks are not focused into specific technologies but into techniques and tools that will make your life easier. (At least your life as a programmer, that is.)

If you have time and you live close enough, come to Verona at the end of October and meet many interesting people. Lots of speakers, three separate tracks, free lunch and wifi – what do you want more? David I is rumored to be there, Marco Cantù will lead sessions all the time and you’ll have a chance to talk to me. I’ll be giving four sessions, some targeted at beginners, some at experienced programmers. (All between those extremes are also invited, of course.)

Monday, September 12, 2011

Life after 2.1: Parallel data production [Introducing Parallel.Task]

An interesting problem appeared on StackOverflow shortly ago – how to generate large quantities of data as fast as possible and store it in a file. (As one could expect) I wrote a parallel solution using OmniThreadLibrary, more specifically the Parallel.ForEach high-level primitive. I’m not posting the complete solution here, just the important part – a method that accepts two parameters, requested file size and output stream, and generates the data. Actual initialization of data buffers is delegated to the FillBuffer method which you can see in the StackOverflow post.

Tuesday, September 06, 2011

Life after 2.1: Pimp My Pipeline

While the biggest focus on the Pipeline improvement was on the exception handling, there were also some changes in the basic functionality.

The most important (and code breaking!) change happened to the Input function, which was renamed to From. If you now want to pass a input queue to a pipeline, use pipeline.From(queue).

Second code breaking change happened to the Run function which now returns IOmniPipeline (i.e. the pipeline interface) itself, not the output blocking collection. Luckily, both changes will be caught by the compiler which would not want to compile the old code any more.

Thursday, August 25, 2011

Multithreading is Hard!

I have known for a long time that there’s a potential race condition between two writers in TOmniBlockingCollection but I thought that it doesn’t present and clear and present danger. Boy was I wrong!

Friday, July 29, 2011

Life after 2.1: Parallel.Join’s new clothes

Parallel.Join has started its life as a very simple construct.
class procedure Join(const task1, task2: TProc); overload;
class procedure Join(const task1, task2: TOmniTaskDelegate); overload;
class procedure Join(const tasks: array of TProc); overload;
class procedure Join(const tasks: array of TOmniTaskDelegate); overload;
Later it got an optional parameter of the IOmnITaskConfig type, but that didn’t change its simplicity. You called Join, it executed some code in parallel, and only when all code blocks completed its execution, your main thread would proceed by executing the statement following the Join call.
Then I started to think about handling exceptions (just as I did for the Parallel.Future) and somehow this simplicity didn’t feel right to me anymore. At the same time I got involved in a prolonged discussion with Антон Алисов (Anton Alisov) and together we defined new features that new Join would have to have.

Thursday, July 28, 2011

OmniThreadLibrary 2.1 hotfix

All users of the 2.1 release, please download this very important hotfix.

There was a nasty bug in OtlEventMonitor where FreeAndNil was called on a variable containing garbage from the stack. >:-(

Great thanks to [Антон Алисов] for finding the problem.

Thursday, July 21, 2011

Life after 2.1: Exceptions in Parallel.Future

The main focus in the next OmniThreadLibrary release is on exception handling in high-level constructs (i.e. the OtlParallel unit). The first one to get this support is Parallel.Future. Why? Simple reason – it has a well-defined point of interaction with the owner (the Value function) and only one background task, which makes exception handling easy to implement.
IOmniFuture<T> was extended with three functions.
  IOmniFuture<T> = interface
    procedure Cancel;
    function  DetachException: Exception;
    function  FatalException: Exception;
    function  IsCancelled: boolean;
    function  IsDone: boolean;
    function  TryValue(timeout_ms: cardinal; var value: T): boolean;
    function  Value: T;
    function  WaitFor(timeout_ms: cardinal): boolean;
  end; { IOmniFuture<T> }
Any exception thrown in the background task and not caught in the future-calculating code will be caught by the IOmniFuture<T> implementation. When a Value is accessed, this exception will be raised in the owner thread.

Wednesday, July 20, 2011

Life after 2.1: Async redux

OtlParallel unit defines four overloaded Async methods in OTL v2.1:

class procedure Async(task: TProc; taskConfig: IOmniTaskConfig = nil); overload;
class procedure Async(task: TOmniTaskDelegate;
taskConfig: IOmniTaskConfig = nil); overload;
class procedure Async(task: TProc; onTermination: TProc;
taskConfig: IOmniTaskConfig = nil); overload;
class procedure Async(task: TOmniTaskDelegate; onTermination: TProc;
taskConfig: IOmniTaskConfig = nil); overload;

As it turned out, two of them are not necessary anymore. Since the introduction of the taskConfig parameter, termination procedure can also be specified by setting taskConfig.OnTerminated.

Tuesday, July 19, 2011

OmniThreadLibrary 2.1

Yes, it is ready. Get the ZIP or check it from SVN.

If you’re following the trunk, do the update. You’ll actually get more than 2.1 as I’ve already merged in development branch with support for exception handling in Parallel.Future and Parallel.Join. Warning – those changes may break the code as two version of Parallel.Async were removed. Check the history.txt and documentation in OtlParallel.pas for more info.

This time you can also download full UML diagrams for OmniThreadLibrary, courtesy of Rich Shealer.

2.1 release should be mostly non-breaking, except for changes in OtlHook exception filtering mechanism and removed EXIT_EXCEPTION exit code (see below for more info).

I’d like to thank dottor_jeckill, Rico Krasowski, vcldeveloper and TOndrej, who helped make this release even more awesomer.

Saturday, July 16, 2011

Getting ready for OmniThreadLibrary 2.1

After a long long wait (sorry folks, due to events out of my control this release took many months longer that I expected) OmniThreadLibrary 2.1 is finally ready!

I’m just putting together change log, testing demos to see if everything is working as it should and so on … A day or two and it will be packed and ready to go. If you’re impatient, just go ahead and check out the current version from the SVN – all the code is already in there.

I have a small favor to ask, though. If you’re using OmniThreadLibrary in D2009 or D2010 – can you please make sure that all tests are included in the appropriate Tests.<version>.groupproj file (and create missing <project name>.<version>.dproj files in the process)? And send the changes to me, of course – my email address is in OTL source files. It would be best if you can leave a comment here if you choose to help me so that the work won’t be duplicated by other programmers.

Thanks in advance, that will really help me getting OTL out quickly. (Otherwise I have to set up a virtual machine and install D2009 and D2010 as I’m not using them for everyday work anymore.)

EDIT: D2010 projects and updated test group are now in the repository, thanks to [vcldeveloper].

EDIT: D2009 projects and updated test group are now in the repository, thanks to [TOndrej].

Saturday, June 25, 2011

Sleep Sort in OTL

I found Sleep Sort so ingenious (in the mad genius way) that I just had to implement it using the OmniThreadLibrary framework.

The code is now shorter than Serg’s original implementation and it’s … wait for it, wait for it … even faster! Twice as fast as the original, actually! Now that I call an improvement!

The code below carries not copyright nor copyleft and can be used in any occasion as long as you don’t blame me for getting fired or any other problems in your personal or professional life it may cause.

Friday, June 10, 2011

Lock-free vs. Locking: Rematch!

My article on lock-free vs. locking data queues was well-received but there were also some comments and complaints. To answer the critics (your comments were all very appreciated!) and to fix some issues with the previous test I’ve decided to stage a rematch.

New contestants

Both Iztok and Chris have provided me with new versions of their queue implementations. Iztok’s code was tuned a little and changed to use TOmniValue instead of TAnyValue for better comparison with TOmniQueue. Chris has created three different variants of his code.

Thursday, June 02, 2011

OmniThreadLibrary Needs YOU!

That is, if you are a C++Builder programmer and want to help an open source project.


The problem with OmniThreadLibrary and C++Builder is very simple – I’m not using it. (The C++Builder part, obviously.) Therefore I’m not checking for compatibility with C++Builder and I cannot fix the stuff if it doesn’t work. (In C++Builder.)

And now a user reported that the OTL doesn’t compile. In C++Builder. And I don’t know how to help him. With his problems. In C++Builder.

[BCC32 Error] DSiWin32.hpp(36): E2257 , expected

[BCC32 Error] DSiWin32.hpp(346): E2040 Declaration terminated incorrectly

[BCC32 Error] OtlCommon.hpp(305): E2238 Multiple declaration for 'TOmniValueContainer::Item'

[BCC32 Error] OtlCommon.hpp(304): E2344 Earlier declaration of 'TOmniValueContainer::Item'

[BCC32 Error] OtlSync.hpp(33): E2113 Virtual function '_fastcall IOmniCriticalSection::Release()' conflicts with base class 'IUnknown'

[BCC32 Error] OtlSync.hpp(74): E2113 Virtual function '_fastcall IOmniResourceCount::Release()' conflicts with base class 'IUnknown'

Is there a nice soul out there that can tell me how to fix the problem? (Or even better, who can make sure that the OmniThreadLibrary compiles with C++ Builder.) Your fixed will be gratefully imported into the main development branch and you’ll earn an eternal fame.

Thursday, May 26, 2011

Lock-free vs. locking

For the past few days I was running tests on three different queue implementations – one lock-free, one based on Delphi’s TQueue<T> and TMonitor and one implemented using critical section and linked list. For a good measure I’ve also thrown a blocking wrapper around the lock-free queue into the mix. [Mostly because I’m using it a lot (it has useful features for multithreading work) and I wondered how much time penalty it adds to my applications.]
During that time I’ve discovered a showstopper bug in TMonitor which practically made TSimpleThreadedQueue useless when using more than one reader. Still, I’m including partial results for that implementation too, as they provide a good comparison.

Tuesday, May 24, 2011

TMonitor bug?

When Chris Rolliston implemented a simple threaded queue class using TMonitor, I was quite ecstatic. Finally I will be able to compare my lock-free queue with a threaded implementation! (That’s something I wanted to do for a long time but I never found a willpower to write a locking queue.)
My elation continued while I was coding my test app and while I tested my own queue. And then I plugged in Chris’ queue and … everything went downhill :( Immediately, my test app started crashing. At first it looked like the bug was in Chris’ code, but when I enabled debug DCUs, debugger pointed to a very unlikely location – TMonitor. Unlikely because of two reason – because I know that Delphi people take quality to the heart and test the code and because I know Allen is an experienced guy who writes excellent code.

Sunday, May 15, 2011

TDM Rerun #17: Put It In A Tree

Hierarchical data appears everywhere and most of the time it must be rebuilt from simple non-hierarchical storage. Think about mail, news, CVS repositories and databases, not to mention groupware and chat forums. Trees are everywhere.

- Put It In A Tree, The Delphi Magazine 118, June 2005

This article dealt with thread sorting, an algorithm that takes a number of items connected with parent-child relationship and puts them into a tree so that they can be displayed in a nice structured way. The ideas and implementation are still perfectly valid.

Links: article (PDF, 82 KB), source code (ZIP, 241 KB).

Divide and Conquer (in parallel)

One of the latest additions to the high-level OtlParallel constructs, Fork/Join, was implemented just before ADUG 2011 and presented there for the first time. Shortly after the ADUG I improved the Fork/Join a little but then forgot to blog about it as I was busy implementing Parallel.Async and Parallel.TaskConfig. Sorry :(
Fork/Join helps you solve just one class of problems, but it is an important one – the problems that can be solved by so-called Divide and Conquer algorithm.
For deeper discussion of D&C, read the Wikipedia article linked above. What interests us is that D&C works by subdividing the problem. Instead of trying to solve the big problem, we divide it into many smaller problems and then we try to solve them. Those subproblems may again be too big and have to be subdivided even further. The process continues until the subproblems are small enough that they can be solved easily.
Of particular interest to us are D&C algorithms where subproblems can be solved in parallel.

Tuesday, April 26, 2011

Configuring background OtlParallel tasks

High-level OmniThreadLibrary parallelism (i.e. the OtlParallel unit) is great when you are running mostly independent parts of code but what can you do when you want to communicate with the main thread from a task?
A few weeks ago my answer would be along the lines of setting communication channel manually or dropping down to low-level parallelism (i.e. the CreateTask) but both are very complicated solutions. There was certainly a room for better solution.
Since the release 910, released on April 17th, OtlParallel contains much simpler way to configure tasks and to set them up for communication with the owner.

Sunday, April 17, 2011

Simple background tasks with OtlParallel

While there’s a simple way to execute one-shot background threads with the low-level OTL API (by calling CreateTask), there is no such high-level function in OtlParallel. At least, there wasn’t one until release 899 was committed to the SVN. (Incidentally, that happened 11 days ago but I was silent about it because I was working on another feature – TaskConfig – which will be completed “really soon now”.)
In short, Parallel.Async accepts an anonymous method, normal method or procedure (all of them must be without parameters) and executes it in a background thread. That’s all.

Thursday, March 31, 2011

ADUG 2011 Slides

My presentation from ADUG 2011 is now online at

Check out the handouts document as it contains lots of my previous writing on OmniThreadLibrary (high-level stuff) neatly collected and organized into one document.

ADUG 2011 - presenters

Thursday, March 24, 2011

Delphi Down Under

This year’s Australia Delphi User Group symposium is a two day event with sessions in Melbourne and Sydney. The first of those – the Melbourne session – happened today. We met in the John Scott Meeting House at the La Trobe university.

Turnout was quite big – nearly 80 very attentive listeners.

Saturday, March 19, 2011

GpProfile on Google code

You may know that lifetime ago I developed fairly successful Delphi profiler called GpProfile.

You may also know that it kinda slipped into oblivion and that it can’t correctly profile modern Delphi code (it is a source instrumenting profile, i.e. it changes your source code so it can be profiled).

You may know all that but I’m fairly sure that you don’t know that GpProfile now works for all Delphis up to XE! How can I be so sure? Because I only learned this a short time ago!

Антон Алисов (Anton Alisov) was brave enough to step in, update the code and create the Google code archive. Go Anton!

In case you’re still using GpProfile (or just want to find out why it was one of most popular Delphi profilers), visit gpprofile2011 project on Google code.

Wednesday, March 16, 2011

Synchronize comes to OmniThreadLibrary

This just came in:

  • IOmniTaskControl.Invoke(procedure begin … end)
  • IOmniTaskControl.Invoke(procedure (const task: IOmniTask) begin … end)
  • IOmniTask.Invoke(procedure begin … end)

Still missing:

  • IOmniTask.Invoke(procedure (const task: IOmniTaskControl) begin … end)

Monday, February 14, 2011

Parallel for implementation [3]: Output

In the previous two installments I’ve tried to give a little insight into how OmniThreadLibrary’s Parallel ForEach is implemented (part 1 – Overview, part 2 – Input). Today I will conclude this short series with the description of output ordering – or what is know in the OTL as the .PreserveOutput modifier.

Ordering is usually used together with the .Into modifier. The reason lies in the integration between the Parallel infrastructure and your parallel code (the one that is executing as Parallel.ForEach payload). In the “normal” foreach statement, output from this parallel payload is not defined. You are allowed to do whatever in the foreach, to generate any output (in case you need it) but Parallel will know nothing about that. Therefore, the OTL has no ability to preserver any ordering because – at least from the viewpoint of the library – the parallelized code is producing no output.

Thursday, February 10, 2011

OmniThreadLibrary Down Under

I’m very excited to announce that OmniThreadLibrary will appear before the Australian public in this year’s ADUG Symposium!


This year’s symposium will happen in Melbourne on 24th and in Sydney on 25th of March.

The title of my presentation will be “Getting full speed with Delphi?” and will cover multithreading programming and high-level OmniThreadLibrary stuff.

Getting full speed with Delphi
(Why single threaded is not good enough?)

In the last few years, the traditional approach to speeding up programs ("We'll just wait for the next generation of hardware.") doesn't work anymore.

In this talk, we'll see why Delphi programs use only 12.5 % CPU on a modern machine and what we can do about it.

The session will show you how to make murky waters of multithreading accessible to every Delphi developer with the help of open source OmniThreadLibrary.

In case you want to meet with me and discuss multithreading programming (or anything else, including life, universe and everything), I’ll be available before the Melbourne and after the Sydney event.

Friday, February 04, 2011

How to crash Delphi compiler in four easy steps

Step one

Start Delphi XE.

Step Two

Create simple project.

Tuesday, January 25, 2011

Parallel for implementation [2]: Input

In my last post, I’ve presented an overview of classes hiding behind the parallel for implementation. Today I’ll focus on the input part of the parallel for – the part that fetches values the loop is iterating over and passes them to parallel tasks. More specifically, I’ll present source providers, data managers and local queue.

Tuesday, January 11, 2011

Parallel for implementation [1]: Overview

Aeons ago I promised to write a blog post about all the magic that happens behind the scenes in Parallel.ForEach. That never happened (sorry). I was busy will other stuff and I had to put it on the backburner.

Today is the day to fulfill that promise.

This article starts the journey that will (hope, hope) explain the murky waters of parallel loop data management. Three parts are planned – Overview (which you are reading now), Input and Output.

Even if you are interested in parallel programming, you may think that such low-level stuff is of no interest to you. Well, you may be right, but let me state three reasons why you should read this three-part series.

1) Because you will then know what the OtlDataManager unit is good for and will be able to use it in your application.

2) Because it’s an interesting topic ;)

3) So I can convince you that Parallel.ForEach is better than home-brew multithreaded parallel loops and that you should always use OmniThreadLibrary ;)


Thursday, January 06, 2011

Delphi on wide screen

A lifetime ago when I was still programming on two 1280 × 1024 monitors I’ve published a post about the IDE layout I was using at that time (in Delphi 2006).

I was always saying that there’s only one reason why a programmer should use two monitors – because (s)he has no place for the third one! So when the opportunity knocked I did the same – cleaned up some place on the desk and installed a 1920 × 1200 monitor in the middle.

Sunday, January 02, 2011

GpLists and GpStructuredStorage update

GpLists 1.49: Implemented TGpGUIDList, a TGUID list.

GpStructuredStorage 2.0c: Uses GpStreams instead of (deprecated) GpMemStr.

Erik Berry fixed GpTextStream and GpLists to compile with Delphi 6; those changes were committed to SVN only.